Water-stream electroarc plasma advantages
  1. Plasma Composition. Water-steam plasma consists of Hydrogen and Oxygen exclusively; both components are active reagents which take part in oxidation-reduction reactions.
  2. No ballast, such as Nitrogen of Air Plasma, where its percentage is 78%.
  3. Extremely High Temperature.
    Plasma jet temperature is able to destroy any organic or biological materials, securely destroy the most toxic poisons, melt and evaporate the most refractory inorganic compounds and significantly reduce waste volume.
  1. High Enthalpy.
    Steam plasma has enthalpy that is greater that that of Nitrogen, Oxygen and many other gases and gas mixtures by an order of magnitude and yields to Hydrogen only.
  2. Superior Steam Transport Properties – the same temperature and concentration regime is formed across entire reaction space while high-temperature steam pyrolysis.
  3. Steam Plasma Gasification Process is insensible to processed waste humidity.
  4. No Explosion Hazard.
    Unlike Hydrogen Plasma water-steam plasma is not explosive.
  5. Available Feedstock.
    The feedstock is ordinary water H2O, which makes water-steam plasma cheaper then other types of plasma.
  6. Eco-friendly Method.
    a) While reaction with chlorine-containing materials, water-steam plasma does not generate dioxine, one of the most toxic substances.
    b) Steam plasma provides complete carbon extraction from waste materials (with the steam conversion temperature of more than 900°С there is no equilibrium carbon in the system), while solid residue produced in the course of all combustion processes contains 30% of carbon.
    c) Exhaust gases produced while steam plasma gasification do not contain nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen delivered to the reaction space with steam plasma decelerates reactions of gaseous sulfur, phosphorus and free chlorine formation, i.e. such gases, which are difficult to remove in gas purification unit. Given lack of oxidant and availability of such metals as Ca, Mg, Na, it is possible to assure fixation of sulfur and phosphorus into refractory compounds and their transformation into condensed phase, whereas chlorine can be fixed as HCl and removed from gas phase in gas purification system.
  7. Steam Plasma Product High Quality – synthesis of gas (СО+Н2) and solid residue:
    a) The greatest heating power (maximum content of Hydrogen and absence of ballast substances like Nitrogen, СО2 etc.) – 22800 kJ/kg.
    b) Maximum Hydrogen-Monoxide Number ?=Н2/СО.
    c) Syn gas can be used as necessary (utilized immediately, reserved for further utilization, transported to remote customer; it can serve as fuel for electric power generation or be raw material for synthetic fuel production) and make waste processing energy-independent.
    d) Solid residue in form of vitrified slag is neutral and can be used in construction process. Ratio of solid residue weight to raw material weight reaches 1:400.
  8. Power Inputs calculated for production of equivalent fuel unit with heating value of 7000 kcal/kg are minimal compared to Oxygen or Air Plasma.
  9. Power Input Reduction is possible:
    Combined steam-turbine and gas-turbine equipment can be used for electric power generation.
  10. Plasma Torch is independent heat source, which makes it possible to control gasification process when waste composition alteration.
COMPARISON OF THE EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES:
Steam Plasma Gasification Air Plasma GasificationConventional GasificationCombustion

Complete destruction
(2000°С)

Complete destruction (2000°С) 90% destruction (800°С) 70% destruction (650°С)

No resins and furans

No resins and furans Resins and furans are present A lot of resins and furans

No ashes

No ashes 10% ashes 30% toxic ashes

Any type of waste

Any type of waste Except for individual inorganic types of waste Except for individual inorganic types of waste

No waste sorting is required

No waste sorting is required Waste sorting is required Waste sorting is required

Any volume

Large amount of waste Small amount of waste Large amount of waste

Very low fume gas emission

Very low fume gas emission Moderate fume gas emission Heavy fume gas emission

Insensitive to waste humidity

Insensitive to waste humidity Sensitive to waste humidity Sensitive to waste humidity

No ballast nitrogen, Syn gas of high quality

Air plasma ballast nitrogen dilutes Syn gas and reduces its energy value